The Mounted Troops of Peter the Great
The Russian mounted troops of this period are difficult to be exact about. There are very few sources of information generally and often the quality of those sources is not good. This is an attempt to produce an overview of Russia mounted troops using the information I have available. It is largely based on a book written by a Russian called Rabinovich but with extra details from other sources. It is though not complete as Rabinovich, for example, is often not reliable and there are large gaps in the information. I am unsure if these problems will ever be solved with the information we have but please contact me if you have any additional information.

In addition because of problems when translating from Russian into English the spellings of, for example, personal names can be problematic. Therefore often two alternatives are given and it must be born in mind that neither may be the correct spelling. It should though be reasonably correct phonetically even if not spelt correctly.

I would like to thank the following people for their help with this page, Vladimir Velikanov, Pavel Konovalchuk, Johan Herber, Thomas Arnfelt and Radoslaw Sikora. Without their help and advice this page would have been very difficult to do.

General Overview

Mounted units can be conveniently divided into three categories. Firstly the 'old style' cavalry that existed prior to the reforms of Peter the Great. Secondly the new style, 'Western', units that were raised by Peter the Great. Finally infantry units mounted on horses for particular actions or campaigns.

I do not intend to deal with this last category of troops here. These units were infantry regiments which temporarily used horses for transport. They will be detailed in the Infantry section. 

The other two categories can be further subdivided into a number of other types of units. The 'old style' cavalry consisted of four groups. 

While the new style, 'Western', troops could be divided into the following groups.

  • Body Guard Squadrons: Two body guard squadrons which were later combined to form a guard regiment.
  • Horse Grenadier regiments: Three regiments of the combined horse grenadiers of the 'Named' regiments.
  • 'Named' Dragoon regiments: The dragoon regiments which in the period 1706 to 1708 where given a permanent name, usually the name of a province. Prior to this the name of the colonel was used to identify the unit. 
  • 'Active' but not named Dragoon regiments: Units which were never given a 'name', i.e. they continued to use the colonels name to identify themselves, but which fought in the field.
  • Garrison Dragoon regiments: Units used solely, or mainly, as garrisons and in the suppression of revolts and punitive expeditions.
  • Miscellaneous Dragoon regiments: Various temporary formations, such as the 'recruit' regiments. Used either to train new recruits or for when they travel to the army, then disbanded and the men placed in other units. Also units whose function is unknown.

Rejtarsky and Kopeishiki, or Kopejno     Back to top

These units were the old type of regular units. They were dressed in traditional Russian manner and the Kopeishiki were armed with lances. During the initial period of the Great Northern War many of these units saw active service. But most were disbanded or reformed as different types of units as the war progressed.

At present I have no details of the various units organisation. It may be that they were organised similarly to the dragoon regiments or it might be that the organisation varied. At Narva in 1700 4,000 or 5,000 of these type, or Horse Service regiments, were present but only one regiment has been identified. Therefore the possibility exists that regimental strength could be much larger and indeed may have been variable. Although before this war the normal strength of a unit was about 1000 men therefore it is likely it remained so.

In addition to Rabinovich and other sources I have used information from Vladimir Velikanov·s excellent articles which can be found at Russian Army in the 17th Century and Steltzy 1698-1728

No. Commanders Raised Disband Unit History
512 Z. E. Kro or Kroga Unknown 1704? 1698 - 1702 Garrison Taganrog , 1704 Disbanded?
513 S. Norov Unknown 1707? 1700 - 1703 Taganrog, 1703 becomes a "Soldiers"regiment.
1703 -1707 Garrison Kamenay Zaton, 1707 Disbanded?
514 S. Stankevich 1700 1702 or 1704 1701 fighting in Ingermanland, 1702 joined by personnel from unit 527, 1702 possibly disbanded or may have been garrison in Smolensk until 1704.
515 M. Murzenk or Murzenck 1700 (1707) 1701 with Field army and Erastfehr · 120 men. 1702 Hummelhof · 950 men, 1703 Yamburg, 1704 siege of Dorpat, 1705 · 1706 Garrison Dorpat, 1707 becomes Olonetsky Dragoon regiment · see below.
516 A. A. Shnejvents or Sheivitc 1700 1702 1701 Garrisoned Sevsk, 1702 Disbanded.
517 I. Pozdeev 1700 1719 Garrisoned Kiev, 1719 Disbanded
518 I. Kokoshkin 1701 1702 1701 In Ingermanland, fought at Pechersk monastry and Izhore,
1702 Disbanded, see 524.
519 M. Frank or Dandy 1701 1702 1701 In Ingermanland, fought at Pechersk monastry and Izhore,
1702 Disbanded, see 524.
520 F. Ushakov 1701 1702 1701 In Ingermanland, fought at Pechersk monastry and Izhore,
1702 Disbanded, see 524.
521 A. Aznacheev or Aznageev or Kaznacheev1701 1701 1702 1701 Garrisoned Pskov, 1702 Disbanded
522 J. I. Viacheslov 1703 1704 1703 in S. P. Nepljuev·s command, 1704 Disbanded
523 G. I. Verevkin 1703 1704 1703 in S. P. Nepljuev·s command, 1704 Disbanded
524 Prince I. I. Lvov 1703 1704 Probably raised from regiments 518 · 520, 1704 Disbanded
525 F. Protasov, 1700 G. D. Rydvansky or Ravdansky
1699 1704 1699 · 1700 Border guard near Smolensk, 1700 Battle of Narva, 1701 Battle of Repnin·s Myzy, 1702 Battle of Everst Myzy·s, 1704 Battles of Druya (Belarus, near Latvian border) and Bykhov (Belarus, south of Mogilev). 1704 Disbanded, personnel to unit 574.
539 J. Chelishchev 1701?   1701 Pskov district. Later reformed as Garrison Dragoon Regiment. 1713 · 15 Smolensk.

Unit 522 was a combined reitar and kopejno regiment.

Unit 539 was a combined reitar, kopejno and hussar regiment. It is probably that these ·hussars· are imitation Polish style hussars, i.e. heavy cavalry. Not light cavalry listed below under ·Hussars·. See 17th Century Russian Army for details of earlier Russian ·heavy· hussars.

All others were reitar.

Horse Service Regiments     Back to top

These are regiments of horse who are serving through a kind of feudal obligation. Other than this they are very similar to the Rejtarsky and Kopeishiki, or Kopejno regiments above.

No. Commanders Raised Disband Unit History
526 B. S. Korsak 1700   1701 · 1704 In Ingermanland, Estland and Belorus, 01 Erastfehr · 245 men? 1707 · 1709 In Poland, Belorus and the Ukraine. This unit served all through this period, apparently with its original organisation.
527 S. V. Arshinevsky or Arshenevsky 1700 1702 1702 became part of unit 514
528 A. Kaloshin 1700 1711
1700 · 1711 Garrisoned Azov, 1708 Bulavin revolt, 1711 Prut Campaign, 1711 Disbanded.
529 N. Vasilev 1700 1711 1700 · 1711 Garrisoned Azov, 1708 Bulavin revolt, 1711 Prut Campaign, 1711 Disbanded.
530 M. Hilinskov 1701 1702 1701 Garrisoned Ladoga, 1702 Disbanded at Yamburg.
531 I. Nazimov 1701 1705 Operated in Ingermanland and Estland, 01 Erastfehr · 249 men. 02 Hummelshof · 1205 men. 1702 near Dorpat vs Schlippenbach, 1703 Yamburg, Kopore and Nienshants, 1704 Narva and Dorpat, 1705 Disbanded
532 S. P. Bahmetev, 1702 · 1703 D. Sheldjakov, 1703 Bahmetev again. 1701 1705 Operated in Ingermanland and Estland, 1703 Yamburg, 1704 Kareloj and Olonets, 1705 disbanded
533 L. F. Aristov 1701 1712 Garrisoned Ufa, 1706 Bashkir revolt, 1712 Disbanded.
534 S. F. Aristov 1701 1712 Garrisoned Ufa, 1706 Bashkir revolt, 1712 Disbanded.

526: It may have been unit 514 and not this one at Erastfehr.

Hussar Regiments     Back to top

These units were an attempt to raise a body of regular light horse. The intention was to provide a reliable source of light cavalry particularly for use against the Turks. The first units were raised in 1707. They were organised in squadrons called ·khorugu·. Initially the squadrons were 300 men but by 1711 they were 200 men. The regular regiment in 1711 had four squadrons each for a total of 800 men per regiment.

By 1711 there were 6 regular units of hussars and Konstam mentions 2 units of volunteer hussars in addition. Unfortunately Rabinovich only mentions the colonels of 4 of these units. Although he does confirm that there were 6 regular units.

Rabinovich's Units

535 Colonel A. Kichich

536 Colonel V. Tanskov

537 Colonel M. Brashevjan

538 Colonel Serbin

The units mentioned above fought in the Prut Campaign against the Turks in 1711. They did not though perform very well. So the units were reformed, using the better troops, into two units, later three. These were commanded by the Colonel·s Kichich, Tanskov and Serbin from above. All of these units were disbanded in 1721.

In 1723 a second attempt was made to raise regular light cavalry. One regiment was raised under the command of Major Albanes. This unit though also didn·t succeed. It never amounted to more than 340 men and quickly dwindled down to 94 men in 1725.

Cossacks and irregular light horse     Back to top

Cossacks were a normal part of all Russian armies of this period. Along with other irregular light horse, principally the Kalmucks, they were used for scouting and harassing the enemies· lines of supply.

Cossacks were organised into squadrons, called ·sotnias·. These were in theory 100 men strong but could vary considerably and could be as large as 200 men. A number of ·sotnia· made up a regiment and again this could vary a lot but 7 to 15 was typical.

The exact deployment of these forces is also a problem. They were probably present with all Russian forces during the war. Yet because they didn·t have a battlefield role they are frequently not mentioned or only their presence is mentioned. Below is a list of the known numbers of these forces at different battles.

Erastfehr (Dec. 1701): 3,800 Cossacks in 8 ·regiments·. 55 Kalmucks. 150 Tartars (?)

Holowczyn (July 1708): 4,000 Cossacks and Kalmucks.

Named Dragoons, Horse Grenadiers, Body Guard Squadrons     Back to top

These units were the core of the Petrine army during the Great Northern War and normally provided the bulk of the mounted troops of the Russian army during this period.

Organisation:

Dragoons and Horse Grenadiers:

1700: Regiments were to consist of 5 squadrons each of 2 companies of 80 to 100 men.

October 1704: A new organisation was introduced. It is doubtful if the already existing units were ever actual reformed into this organisation, although new units used this organisation. This organisation called for a regiment to have 4 squadrons each of 3 companies of 90 to 100 men. This gave a full strength unit a total of 1,230 men.

1705: A Horse Grenadier company of 100 men was added to each regiment, or at least in theory. It is unclear if all dragoon regiments actually had a horse grenadier company or if it was just the ·named· regiments. While only 30 of the 37 ·named· regiments can be identified as having horse grenadier companies.

How ever many Horse Grenadier companies there were they were usually concentrated into ad hoc regiments. This happened until 1708 · 1709 when they were organised into permanent Horse Grenadier Regiments, see below.

1708 - 1709: Three Horse Grenadier regiments made permanent, see regiments 38, 39 and 40 below. These consisted of 10 companies each of Horse Grenadiers with each company coming from a different ·Named· dragoon regiment. This would give a regimental strength of circa 1000 men. Immediately below is a list of the regiments which supplied a company to these units.

Regt No. 38: Consisted of the Horse Grenadier companies of the following regiments: - 5, 7, 11, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 28 and 29.

Regt No 39: Consisted of the Horse Grenadier companies of the following regiments: - 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 22, 24, 25, 26 and 32.

Regt No 40: Consisted of the Horse Grenadier companies of the following regiments: - 1, 3, 9, 10, 13, 15, 19, 23, 27 and 34b.

The horse grenadier companies of the following regiments are not mentioned above: - 12, 30, 31, 33, 34a, 35, 36. Possible these units didn·t have a Horse Grenadier company or possibly they retained it. Also it is unclear if the Horse Grenadier company was disbanded when the parent regiment was disbanded.

1712: Regiments now officially 10 companies strong. They had a total of 1,328 men of which 1,100 were mounted. This does not appear to include the horse grenadiers.

1720: Regiments reduced to 1,251 men but again the number available mounted would be smaller, probably around 1000 to 1050.

Body Guard Squadrons.

Regiments 37a and 37b were actually the body guard squadrons of the two most senior generals in the Russian army, Menshikov and Sheremetev. They were the only ·Heavy· cavalry units in the Russian army at this time. The exact organisation of these is unknown but they appear to have been about the same size as a normal squadron. At Poltava these two units seem to have a combined strength of 220 men. From 1719 they were brigaded together with one, or possibly, more other dragoon companies in St Petersburg. In 1721 these units were formed into the Kronshlotsky regiment and then in 1725 they were renamed the Leib regiment.

The identity of the other unit or units that they combined with is a little uncertain. Konstam identifies it as the ·Governor of St Petersburg dragoon company· but this unit is otherwise not recorded. Although this may be the same unit as Rabinovich·s ·St Peteresburg Squadron·, unit number 633. Rabinovich has unit number 572, Roslavsky·s Dragoon Squadron, as joining the new Kronshlotsky regiment in 1721. So it may be that this is the unit Konstam is talking about. This though still leaves the problem of the regiment only having 3 squadrons while it should have 5. It is just speculation but perhaps more than one independent squadron joined the two body guard squadrons to for the Kronshlotsky / Leib regiment.

Raised & commanders:

The following table shows the development of the Dragoon and other regular regiments of the Russian army. Initially units were know by the name of there commander. From 1706 units were given a name, usually the name of a province, which they kept permanently. Unless otherwise noted it is assumed that the regiments were ·Named· in 1706.

In the column marked 'Regiment' the permanent name is noted and two numbers. The first number refers initially to the number assigned to the unit in the Osprey book by Konstam and Rickman. Later it is a number assigned to them by myself for easier reference. The second number refers to the numbers given units in Rabinovich's work.

The Commanders column lists the known names of the unit commander before the unit was assigned a permanent name. It should be noted that it is often difficult to be 100% certain about the spelling of the name because of problems with translation. Also from the sources I have the exact period of time they were in charge is sometime unclear. So taking for example with unit number 1, what would become the Moskovski regiment. The entry means that initially von Verdun was in charge, or he was the nominal head of the regiment. Then at some time between 100 and 1702 someone called then Goltz or Gults or Gulits was in charge. By 1702 Renne had taken over and at some time between then and 1706, when it received its permanent name Rozhnov was in command.

Regiment

Raised (Disbanded)

Commanders

1: Moskovski (542)

1700

1700: E.A. Goltz/ Gulitsthen von Verdun
1702: C.M.E. Renne then Rozhnov

2: Kievski (541)

1698

1699: A.A. Schnewents
1702: R. Bauer
1702 - 03: Schnewents again
1703:  Leontyev

3: Vladimirski (551)

1701

1701: M.S. Zhdanov
1702: Prince P.F. Meshchersky

4: Pskovski (548)

1701

1701: F.A. Novikov
1702: Prince V.A. Vadboloky
1702: Prince N. Meshchersky , then N.J. Inflant

5: Kazanski (549)

1701

1701: D.R. Shenshin , then M.A. Zybin
1702: V.V Grigorov
1703: A. Akhmatov , then A.D. Astafyev
1706: Puligny or de Poulignie

6: Novgorodski (544)

1701

1701: Prince N. F. Meshchersky
1702: Prince G.S. Volkonsky
1703: N.J. Inflant

7: Troitski (543)

1701

1701: S.I. Kropotov
1705: G. von Rozen , then V.B. Sheremetev

8: Astrakhanski (550)

1701

1701: Prince I.I. Lvov
1702 to 1705: I.A. Ignatyev , then I. Miller-Felsen , then Netergost, the Ron, then A. Inflant, then P. A. Zhukov.

9: Siberianski (546)

1701

1701: A.A. Malina or Mulin
1703 to 1705: G.K. Pflug, then Sheveljev

10: Smolenski (558)

1702 (1714)

1702: M.J. Frank
1703: M. Zybin
1704: B.I. Gagarin, then Geyn, then Khlopov

11: St. Peterburgski (547)

1701 (1711)

1701: N.I. Poluektov
1702: M.A. Zybin, then V.V. Grigorov, then I. Genskin.

12: Chernigovski (555)

1701 (1716)

1701: A. Dumont

13: Vjatski (554)

1701

1701: D.I. Devgerin
1704: P.M. Suviz
1705: A.G. Volkonsky

14: Nizhni Novgorodski (553)

1701

1701: A.I.M de la Career
1702: V.L. Bodevy
1703: de la Career again
1704: J. Boltin, then Shishkov, then von Schadenberg.

15: Yaroslavlski (592)

1706

1706: Prince G.I. Volkonsky, then Nashchokin
1707: 'Named'

16: Tverskoy (557)

1702

1702: P.M. Deolov
1703 to 1705: G.A. Sukhotin, then J. Boltin, then A. Dumont, then M. von Schultz

17: Permski (563)

1703

1703: I.S. Gorgov

18: Ingermanlandski (565)

1703

1703: A.D. Menshikov
1704: F. Deveznik
1705: 'Named'

19: Nevski (573)

1705

1705: I.I. Portessis
1706: von Schtolts, then Campbell

20: Belozerski (561)

1703 (1712)

1703: A.F. Shakhovsky
1704: P.M. Apraksin but Kulakov actually in command.
1707: 'Named'
1708: Postelnikov

21: Ryanzanski (574)

1705 (1713)

1705: N.Goering , then G. Geyn, then Cherntsov or Chentsov
1705: 'Named'

22: Ustiuzhski / Yamburgski (607)

1707

1707: Raised as 'Named' regiment
1712: renamed the Yamburgski regiment

23: Arkhangelski (564)

1703 

1703: B.P. Sheremetev with 2 squadrons
1704: Colonel Shamordin
1705: becomes 'elective' unit with 5 squadrons
1708: 'Named'

24: Lutzhski (578)

1705

1705: Prince T. Putyatin
1708: 'Named'

25: Vologodski (576)

1705

1705: F. Khrushchov
1706: V. Monastyrev, then I. Power or Bauer

26: Narvski (577)

1705

1705: I. Pestov
1706: Paver de Colderson
1707: J. Polonsky , then Grigorov , then I. von Millen-Felsen (or Felten )
1707: ‘Named’

27: Rostovski (585)

1706 

1706: T. N. Streshnev but actually commanded by Kruse
1707: ‘Named’ 

28: Azovski (586)

1705 – 06 

1706: A. I. Ivanov but actually commanded by Colonel Pavlov
1707: ‘Named’ 

29: Yamburgski (590)

1706 (1713)

1706: F. Fasman or Fastman

30: Life (605)

1707

1707: Commanded by A. A. Reshkov
1719: Renamed the St. Petersburg regiment

31: Olonetzski (604)

1707 

 

32: Kargopolski (606)

1707

1707: I. Boltin
1708: M. de la Career

33: Tobolski (609)

1707

1707: Arakcheev

34a: Kropotovski (593)

1706 (1709)

1706: F. von Deveznik or Fonveznik (Von Veznik ?)
1707: ‘ Named’

34b: Novotroitsky (608)

1707

1707: S. I. Kropotov

35: Belograd (566)

1704 (1714)

1704: N. F. Meshchersky, then M. M. Hilinsky
1706: ‘Named’

36: Yenisei (610)

1707

 

37a: Menshikov Life Squadron

1705 (1721)

1705: Commanded by General Menshikov . For a short time by Mazeppa until he revolted, then returned to Menshikov.
1721: Combined with 37a and renamed the Kronshlotsky regiment.
1725: Kronshlotsky regiment renamed the Leib regiment.

37b: Sheremetev Life Squadron (629)

1704? (1721)

Raised in 1704 or earlier commanded by General Sheremetev
1721: Combined with 37a and renamed the Kronshlotsky regiment.
1725: Kronshlotsky regiment renamed the Leib regiment.

38: A.S. Kropotov Horse Grenadier

1708

1708: A. S. Kropotov
1709: T. I. Chirikov
1710: S. Khlopov
1711: G. Rozhnov , then Polonsky 

39: Von der Ropp Horse Grenadier

1709

1709: C. C. Von der Ropp
1725: Renamed the Vyborgregiment

40: G. S. Kropotov Horse Grenadier

1709

1709: G. S. Kropotov

Note: Units 38 to 40 are the Horse grenadier regiments.

Deployment:

The following table shows the known deployment of the ·Named· regiments. The bulk of this information is from Rabinovich but additional, usually Swedish sources have also been used.

Regt No

History

1

00: Narva – 667 men. 01 Rappin and  Erastfehr – 700 men. 02 Hummelshof – 646 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 04 Narva, 06 Grodno and Kalisz then in Lithuania and Ukraine. 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign. 23 Derbent Campaign.

2

00: Narva – 721 men. 01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 02 Hummelshof – 661 men 03 Luga River 04 Dorpat and Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalisz. 07 Bykhov. 08 Lesnaya, Kadin and Baturin. 09 Poltava. 10 Riga, Pernau and Revel. 11 – 13 in Pomerania, Stettin and Tonning. 16 Magdeberg and Copenhagen.

3

01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland.  01 Erastfer. 02 Hummelshof – 773 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 03 Luga River. 04 Dorpat. 05 - 08 Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. 08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Starye Senzhary, Krasnokut and Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign

4

 01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Rauge and Erastfehr – 700 men. 02 Hummelshof – 923 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar.  08 Holowczyn. 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign.

5

 01 – 03 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Erastfehr – 800 men. 02 Hummelshof – 882 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 04 Siege of Narva. 11 Prut Campaign.

6

 01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Erastfehr – 428 men. 02 Hummelshof – 970 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 03 Luga River. 04 Dorpat and Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalish. then in Poland and the Ukraine. 08 Kadin, Holowczyn(?) and  Lesnaya. 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign.

7

 01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Rappin and Erastfehr – 970 men. 02 Hummelshof – 920 men. 03 Luga River. 04 dorpat and Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalisz 08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Odolyany09 – 10 Riga and Pernau. 11 – 18 in Pomerania.

8

 01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Rauge and Erastfehr – 835 men. 02 Hummelshof – 807 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 03 Luga River. 04Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalish. 07 – 08 Bulavin revolt. 08 Holowczyn(?) 11 – 13 Pomerania.

9

03 in 3rd Swedish Campaign under Apraksin. 06 Kalish. 08 Lesnaya. 08 – 09 Kamenki, Krasny Kut & Oposhnya area. 09 Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 11 Prut Campaign.

10

02 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 03 Luga River. O4 Dorpat and Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalish. 08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Krasnykut, Starye Senzhary, Veprik & Poltava. 10 Riga. 11 Prut Campaign. 11 – 12 Pomerania. 14 Disbanded.

11

01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 01 Erastfehr – 300 men. 02 Hummelshof – 918 men, Ronenburg, Smilten and Wolmar. 03 Yamburg and Luga River. 04 Dorpat and Narva. 05 Gemauerthof. 06 Kalish. Then in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. 08 Holowczyn(?) 09 Belotserkovka, Starye Senzhary, Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 10 – 11 in Poland & Walachia. 11 Prut Campaign then disbanded.

12

11 Prut Campaign. 16 Disbanded

13

01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 04 Narva. 04 – 05 3rd & 4th Swedish Campaigns under Apraksin. 08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Krasnykut, Oposhnya & Poltava. 09 – 10 Riga, Vyborg & Reval. 13  Palkana. 14 Storkyro.

14

01 – 04 in Ingermanland and Estland. 04 – 05 3rd & 4th Swedish Campaigns under Apraksin. 08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign. 16 – 17 in Kexholm & Vyborg district.

15

07 – 08 Bulavin revolt. 08 in Poland & Lesnaya. 09 Oposhnya, Poltava, Perevolochnoj and Odolyany. 11 – 13 Pomerania, sieges of Stralsund & Stettin, then in Holstein at Frederickstadt.

16

02 – 03 Garrison Ostrogozhsk on foot. 03 joins field army mounted. 04 Dorpat. 05 Gemauerthof. 08 Holowczyn and Lesnaya. 09 Poltava and Riga. 11 Prut Campaign. 14 Storkyro.

17

04 Action at Reval and Narva. 06 Grodno. 08 Holowczyn, Lesnaya and Kadin. 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign.

18

04 – 05 in Ingermanland & garrisoned Kopore in 05. 06 – 07 Vyborg area. 08 Soikina myzy in Karelia & Bulavin revolt. 09 Poltava. 11 – 19 in Poland and Pomerania. 20 Courland.

19

06 Grodno and Kalish. 08 Lesnaya. 09 Poltava. 09 – 10 Riga & Reval. 11 – 14 Pomerania.

20

04 Siege of Narva & Karelian Campaign. 08 Holowczyn and Kadin. 09 Poltava.11 Prut Campaign. 12 Disbanded, personnel go to 9

21

06 Kalish. 08 Holowczyn(?) 09 Poltava. 10 Sevsk & Kamenay Zaton garrisons. 11 Prut Campaign. 12 by now only nominally Dragoons, actually infantry. 13 Disbanded.

22

08 Lesnaya. 09 Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 11 – 12 Pomerania. 12 (?) Renamed Yamburgski regiment.

23

03 Luga River. 05 Gemauerthof. 05 – 06 Vyborg & Astrakhan. 07 Dorpat. 08 actions at Rakobolju, Kopore & Soikina myzy all in Karelia. 09 Poltava. 10 Vyborg, Kexholm & Helsingfor. 11 – 14 Pomerania. 16 – 17 Poland. 22 – 23 Derbent Campaign.

24

06 near Reval and Vyborg. 08 Reval raid. 10 Vyborg and Kexholm. 11 Helsingfor. 12 – 20 Pilkinaja Kirka, Obersfors, Borgo, Picks Sanul and Swedish Coast. 13 Palkana. 14 Storkyro 19 – 20 Sweden.

25

08 Kolgapa. 09 Oposhnya, Poltava & Reval. 10 Kexholm. 1713 Palkana. 1714 Storkyro.

26

06 Vyborg. 08 Reval raid and Lesnaya. 09 Poltava and Vyborg. 10 Kexholm. 11 Helsingfor. 12 – 20 Pilkinaja Kirka, Obersfors, Vase, Finland and Telme. 13 Palkana

27

08 Holowczyn(?) and Lesnaya. 09 Verkhnie Senzhary, Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 11 – 13 Pomerania. 16 – 18 in Poland. 18 constructed Tsaritsynsk lines. 21 – 22 Derbent Campaign.

28

08 Holowczyn(?) 09 Poltava. 11 Prut Campaign

29

08 Lesnaya. 09 Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 09 -10 Riga and Reval. 11 – 13 Pomerania. 13 Disbanded.

30

07 Kalisz. 08 Holowczyn, Dobroe, Lesnaja and Baturin. 09 Oposhnya, Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 09 – 10 Riga. 11 Prut Campaign. 11 – 18 in Poland. 21 – 22 in Riga & Reval. 22 – 24 Tsaritsynsk lines.

31

07 – 08 Pankry & Karls Kirchen in Poland. 09 Poltava and Reval. 11 – 12 Pomerania. 14 Stokyro. 16 -17 in Poland. 21 construct Ladoga channel. 23 – 25 construct Tsaritsynsk lines.

32

08 Lesnaya 09 Poltava & Perevolochnoj. 09 – 10 Riga. 11 Prut Campaign. 11 – 13 Pomerania.

33

08 Holowczyn and Senzhary. 09 Poltava and Reval. 11 Prut Campaign. 14 Vasa in Finland, Storkyro and Nyslott. 24 vs Kalmyks on the Volga.

34a

06 – 08 in Poland. 08 Lesnaya. 09 Disbanded.

34b

08 Garrisoned Azov & Taganrog, Bulavin revolt. 08 -09 Gorodnya, Oposhnya and Poltava. 10 Riga and Pernau. 11 – 13 Pomerania.

35

08 Bulavin revolt, then on ‘quartermaster business’ – guarding supplies in Belograd. 14 Disbanded.

36

07 – 08 Garrisoned Moscow. 08 Bulavin revolt. 10 Riga and Reval. 11 – 13 Pomerania.

37a

08 Lesnaya. 09 Oposhnya & Poltava. 21 Became part of Kronshlotsk, later Leib, regiment.

37b

04 becomes active. 05 – 06 Astrakhan and Ukraine. 09 Reshetilovkoj, Lohvitsej and Poltava. 20 in St. Petersburg. 21 Became part of Kronshlotsk, later Leib, regiment.

38

08 in Poland (Shamov and Plotsk) 09 vs revolting Zaporozhye Cossacks – Gadyach, Sorochinstsy & Sokolki, also Oposhnya, Poltava and Odolyany. 11 Prut Campaign. 16 Poland. 26 became Revelski regiment.

39

09 Poltava and Odolyany. 11 Prut Campaign.  25 became Vyborg regiment.

40

09 Poltava and Odolyany. 11 Prut Campaign.

Note: Units 38 to 40 are the Horse grenadier regiments.

Holowczyn, 1708: You will notice that many units listed as being at this battle are marked (?). This is because there is some confusion concerning which units participated in the battle. The Russian cavalry were deployed in two wings at this battle but only one of the wings was heavily involved in the action. Indeed of the cavalry that was involved in the action only 3 regiments were in actual combat. The rout of these units swept away their supporting units. This has led to confusion about the identity of the supporting units.

All sources agree that Dragoon regiments 4, 16 and 20 were the lead units of the Russian left wing but there are two versions of the other units in this wing. The first version has units 3, 10, 13, 27 and 33 as the supporting units of this wing. While the second version has the wing also consisting of units 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 21 and 28. There is also some indication that with the second version Dragoon regiment 3, the Vladimirski regiment, might also have been involved. It may have formed a kind of central reserve with 4 battalion of mounted infantry. It might therefore have involved in the battle but from the opposite end of the field to the other cavalry.

It is impossible to judge at present which version is correct, although perhaps on balance the second version is more likely. Which ever is true it is likely that the other units were present in the army on the day of the battle. They are likely to have been part of the right wing of cavalry which was not engaged in the battle.

Poltava, 1709: The units identified were in the area at the time of the battle and were not all necessarily involved in the actual battle.

Active· Dragoon Regiments (not ·Named·)     Back to top

These are units that were not ·Named· but which fought against the Swedes during this period. Generally they would be organised as ·Named· dragoon units.

No. Name or Commander Raise Disbd Operated Other Commanders
560 V. Ogarev 1702 1703 Ingermanland 1702 - 03  
568 Ranenburgsky Squadron (A. D. Menshikov) 1704? 1714 1708: Bulavin Cossack revolt and Cherkassk 1709: Poltava  
569 S. Stankevich 1703 1705 to 21 1704: Drui and Bychov 1704: De La Patrier (temp only)
570 G. Suhotin 1703 1705 to 21 1704: Drui and Bychov  
612 E. A. Gulits or Gults 1708 1714 1708: Moscow Lands army, fleet protection and Bulavin revolt. Later in Pomerania  
621 Hanenev 1707 1710 1710: Capture of Vyborg  
622 Kozlovsky Squadron 1706 ??? 1707 – 1708: Bulavin revolt. 1709: Poltava Subsequent history unknown  
623 F. M. Apraksin 1708   1708: Bulavin revolt. 1709: Poltava. 1711: Kubanthen garrisoned Voronezh province. Initially the VoronezhSquadron. In 1723 renamed the Voronezh Garrison Dragoon Regiment (see 628)
630 Meklenburgsky 1720   Pomeranian Expeditions Possibly a ‘Named’ regiment but very little known about this unit
633 St Petersburg Provincial Squadron ??? ??? 1711: In Vyborg and Kexholm area.  

Garrison Dragoon Regiments     Back to top

These units were primarily used as garrison troops or as combat troops against non Swedish forces. They were used for punitive expeditions and for suppressing the numerous revolts of the period. Generally they would have been organised as ·Named· dragoon units, although actual strength would have varied considerably.

No. Original Commander Formed Disband Other Commanders Garrison Other Operations
540 D. Mejn 1700   1706: I.Arshineva 1714: L. Parfentev Tobolsk District Punitive expeditions against Siberians
545 A. G. Ragozin 1701 1706 to 17   Taganrog Was infantry, never mounted.
556 I. A. Oznobishin 1701 1703?   Arkhangelsk Novgorod  
559 Detlov or Djatlov 1702 1704?   Ostrogozhsk Possible was infantry.
584 V. B. Sheremetev 1706 1716 1708: J. Boltin 1711:Prince Lvov   Vs Astrakhan and Bashkir revolts
588 G. Frejdlin 1705 1710? 1705: Nominally under General Sheremetev Smolensk Vs Astrakhan revolt in 1706
601 I. B. Levashev 1706 1718   Smolensk, Orsha, Kiev and Poland  
602 D. B. Levashev 1706 Unknown   Smolensk  
603 M. Chirikov 1706 Unknown   Smolensk  
611 I. Golovin or Golovanov 1708 1714     1708: Moscow Lands army, fleet protection and Bulavin revolt.
613 P.I. Jakovlev 1708 1709     1708: vs Bulavin and Nekrasov revolt
614 J. V. Von Delden 1708 1715 – 1716   1709: Vyazma 1708: Moscow Lands army and Bulavin revolt
615 I. M. Denisov 1708 1709 This unit was 612, 613 and 614 temporarily combined   1708: Bulavin revolt
624 Siberian Garrison Regiment 1711     Siberia  
625 S. Dremont or Drummond 1712   From 1727 was known as the Kazan Garrisn regiment Kazan Province  
626 Dragoon Squadron 1712   From 1727 know as the Moscow Squadron Moscow  
627 Astrakhan 1720   From 1727 know as Astrakhan Garrison regiment Astrakhan  
628 Voronezh 1720   From 1727 know as Voronezh Garrison Regiment (see 623) Voronezh  
632 F. V. Shidlovsky 1707? 1718   1707: Raisin 1707- 1708: Bulavin revolt. 1711: Samara
635 Sawing 1711   Known as the ‘Saxon’ regiment Voronezh  

Miscellaneous Dragoon Regiments     Back to top

These units were used for a variety of purposes but have no know direct combat role. Units whose type is listed as ·Training· were regiments which trained soldiers who were then sent to other regiments to fight. ·Recruit· regiments similarly probably involved an element of training, particularly unit 594, see below. But they were mainly an administrative unit. They consisted of a group of recruits which were going from a rear area to the front. Once at the front the unit was disbanded and the soldiers joined other unit.

The other units in the table, with no ·type, may possibly units that belong in other sections of this work. Little or nothing is know of them and it might be that they should be in one of the other categories of unit.

No Name / Commander Type Raised Disbanded Other Commanders
552 ‘Juvenile’ Training 1701 1703  
562 M. Eseneev Recruit 1703 1703  
567 A. Musin – Pushkin   1704 1712 1707: Dejdjut or Dedjut
571 Prince Lvov Training 1703 1705  
572 Roslavlsky Squadron   1704 1721 to Kronshlotsky  
575 M. Zybin   1705 1706 to 30 1706: Gagarin
579 I. Novikov Recruit 1705 1705  
580 S. Melnitsky Recruit 1705 1705  
581 A and P. Grigorov Training 1705 1715?  
582 P. M. Apraksin   1705 1706 to 601 and 602  
583 F. Elchaninov   1705 1706 to 601 and 602  
589 A. Shezdinov Recruit 1706 1706  
594 M. Dubasov Squadron Recruit 1706 1716  
595 M. Malygin Recruit 1706 1706  
596 F. Oshcherin Recruit 1706 1706  
597 F. Veyde Recruit 1706 1706  
598 V. Shemjakin Recruit 1706 1706  
599 V. Gendlin Recruit 1706 1706  
600 Gerink or Gering Recruit 1706 1706  
616 B. Lovzin Recruit 1708 1708  
617 S. Protasov Recruit 1708 1708  
631 I. Vjazemsky   1717?   Mentioned in 1717 and called the ‘Novopribornyj’ regiment. Otherwise this unit is unknown.
634 Poltev   1711 1712  
636 I. Rzhev       Mentioned in 1702
637 M. Izmajlov       Mentioned in 1702

This page should be viewed very much as a work in progress. Information is very difficult to obtain on Russian armies of the period and the above represents my best guess of the forces of Peter the Great. It is though likely to change as more information becomes available. If you have any additional information, comments, etc please get in touch with me at nick@wfgamers.org.uk